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 Spike Protein

The Spike protein is located on the surface of the virus and is in charge of mediating its entry into host cells. In humans, it interacts with ACE2, a receptor found on the surface of target cells (lung, upper-epithelial, intestine). 


Hover your mouse over the yellow buttons to discover the cool features of this protein! 

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RBD Domain

The Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) is the section of the S protein that recognizes ACE2. It changes its shape to be able to stabilize the connection between the two proteins. 



Spike proteins are highly “decorated” with glycans. These small molecules prevent recognition by host proteases and modulate antibody recognition.

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Did you know?

The Spike or S protein is a main target of multiple vaccines, as blocking it might make the virus incapable of invading a host cell. 

Scroll down to see Spike in action!

The Spike-ACE2 Interaction

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Place your mouse over the orange interaction to see its features! 



The Spike protein is located at the surface of the virus, while the ACE2 receptor is located on the surface of the human cell.

ACE2 receptors

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When the virus comes close to a cell, both proteins interact, and a complex is formed.

Spike changes the conformation of the RBD domain to make the complex stable and begin the infection process.

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