COVID-19

VACCINES

THE SCIENCE BEHIND THEM

MAKING A VACCINE:

STUDYING PROTEIN STRUCTURES

 

To fight the COVID-19 outbreak, scientists began by analyzing the structure of the virus’ proteins. Visualizing these structures is key to understanding how the virus invades our cells and hides from our defense mechanisms. Scientists have found important proteins that can be used as targets in vaccination, such as the Spike protein. This protein is found on the surface of the virus and is necessary for viral entry into human cells.

HOW DO VACCINES WORK?

 

Vaccines stimulate our immune responses to protect against infectious diseases. They prompt our cells to recognize and protect us from antigens (foreign agents) by producing antibodies. Sometimes, the process of building immunity after vaccination can cause symptoms, such as fever. These symptoms are expected.

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The goal of vaccines is to make our bodies produce protective antibodies. 

 

COVID-19 vaccines expose our immune system to Spike proteins, which induce the production of these antibodies.

 

You cannot get COVID-19 from a COVID-19 vaccine.  

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COVID-19 VACCINE TECHNOLOGIES

THE DIFFERENT COVID-19 VACCINES

* Final clinical review by WHO in progress as of March 17, 2021.

** Efficacy defined as the prevention of symptomatic disease for fully vaccinated individuals. 

WHICH VACCINE SHOULD I GET?

THE BEST COVID-19 VACCINE IS THE ONE THAT'S AVAILABLE TO YOU.

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All approved vaccines are safe and effective. Moreover, no individual has died of COVID-19 after completing their vaccination schedule. When it is your turn, get the vaccine! You are not only protecting yourself, but everyone around you.

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TRANSLATIONS

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REFERENCES

 

1. NIH Director’s Blog: Structural Biology Points Way to Coronavirus Vaccine. https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2020/03/03/structural-biology-points-way-to-coronavirus-vaccine/. Accessed on March 2, 2021. 

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: US COVID-19 Vaccine Product Information. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/info-by-product/index.html. Accessed on March 2, 2021.

3. World Health Organization: COVID-19 Vaccines within WHO evaluation process. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines. Accessed on March 17, 2021.

4. COVID19 Vaccine Tracker. https://covid19.trackvaccines.org. Accessed on March 2, 2021.

5. Ramasamy M., et al. Safety and immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine administered in a prime-boost regimen in young and old adults (COV002): a single-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 2/3 trial. The Lancet, 2020.  

6. Johnson & Johnson: Janssen COVID19 Vaccine. https://www.janssencovid19vaccine.com. Accessed on March 2, 2021.

7. Knoll. M and Wonodi, C. Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine efficacy. The Lancet, 2021.

8. Ontario Ministry of Health: COVID-19: Vaccine Storage and Handling Guidance. http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/programs/publichealth/coronavirus/docs/vaccine/vaccine_storage_handling_pfizer_moderna.pdf. Accessed on March 2, 2021.

9. The Gamaleya Center: Sputnik V, general information. https://sputnikvaccine.com/about-vaccine/. Accessed on March 2, 2021.

10. Logunov, D., et al. Safety and efficacy of an rAd26 and rAd5 vector-based heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine: an interim analysis of a randomised controlled phase 3 trial in Russia. The Lancet, 2021. 

11. CanSinoBIO: About the Convidecia Vaccine. http://www.cansinotech.com. Accessed on March 2, 2021.

12. Reuters: CanSinoBIO's COVID-19 vaccine 65.7% effective in global trials, Pakistan official says. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-vaccine-pakistan-idUSKBN2A81N0. Accessed on March 2, 2021.

13. Janssen Global: Vaccine Technology. https://www.janssen.com/infectious-diseases-and-vaccines/vaccine-technology. Accessed on March 2, 2021.

14. Mallapaty S. China COVID vaccine reports mixed results — what does that mean for the pandemic? Nature, 2021. 

15. Zhang Y., et al. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18–59 years: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial. The Lancet, 2020.